Alphons Diepenbrock

General
Alphons Diepenbrock was born on 2 September 1862 in Amsterdam and grew up in a Catholic family of five children. In 1895 he married Elisabeth de Jong van Beek en Donk (1868-1939). They had two children: Joanna (1905-1966) and Thea (1907-1995). Diepenbrock died in Amsterdam on April 5, 1921.

Education
Diepenbrock is a self-taught composer. As a child, Diepenbrock was attracted to music and he played the piano and the violin. His parents did not support his wish to go to the conservatory and Diepenbrock went to study classical languages instead. He composed in his spare time. In 1888 he took his doctoral degree on a thesis on Seneca.

Career
In the same year he was appointed as a classics teacher at the gymnasium in Den Bosch. In his spare time, he was still composing, as well as writing essays on various subjects, such as music, painting, literature, philosophy, social history and politics for journals such as De Nieuwe Gids and De Kroniek.

Dissatisfied with the educational system of that time and the uninspiring environment of the town where he was living, Diepenbrock moved to Amsterdam in 1895. Here, he gave private lessons in classical languages and started to focus more on composition.

Owing in part to the unique combination of being a classicist and composer, he is one of the most interesting personalities in Dutch musical life around 1900. Without developing an actual teacher-student relationship, he serves as a mentor to many younger composers. He is an inspiration for Jan Ingenhoven, Matthijs Vermeulen, Hendrik Andriessen and Willem Pijper.

As a conductor, he performed many contemporary works, including Gustav Mahler’s Fourth Symphony (at the Concertgebouw) as well as works by Fauré and Debussy.

Compositions
Diepenbrock’s great interest in literature finds expression in the texts and themes in his many vocal compositions. Some of his influences were Goethe, Novalis, Vondel, Brentano, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, Baudelaire and Verlaine. Some of Alphons Diepenbrock’s compositions took inspiration from and are based on poems by Heine Goethe and Dutch poets such as Van Eeden.

He created a musical idiom which, in a highly personal manner, combined 16th-century polyphony with Wagnerian chromaticism, to which in later years was added the impressionistic refinement that he encountered in Debussy’s music. Out of a feeling of insecurity, he was always polishing his music. On the other hand, the collaboration with directors and singers who were convinced of the qualities of his work, always fortified and helped him.

Diepenbrock, now a prolific composer, primarily of symphonic songs and choral works, wrote his most famous one, ‘Die Nacht‘ (1911) written for mezzo-soprano voice and orchestra.

War greatly affected Alphons Diepenbrock’s life. He took his patriotic role as a composer during the war very seriously, writing songs expressing opposition to Germany. He was active in the Ligue des Pays Neutres and wrote numerous anti-German articles and songs such as ‘Belges, debout’! and ‘Les poilus de l’Argonne’.

Henriëtte Bosmans

General
Henriëtte Hilda Bosmans was born in Amsterdam on December 6, 1895. Her father, the cellist Henri Bosmans, died when she was barely 8 months old. Henriëtte Bosmans died in the Prinsengracht Hospital in Amsterdam on July 2, 1952.

Education
Henriëtte was educated by her mother, the pianist and teacher Sarah Benedicts. In 1913, Bosmans was awarded the piano diploma cum laude by the Society for the Advancement of Music in Utrecht. She then studied music theory with J.W. Kersbergen. In 1920, Henriëtte Bosmans took lessons in orchestration with Cornelis Dopper.

Career
In November 1915, Henriëtte Bosmans maked her debut as a concert pianist with the Utrecht Municipal Orchestra, conducted by Wouter Hutschenruyter, performing Mozart’s ‘Piano Concerto’ KV 450 (1784). She performed in the major concert halls in the Netherlands with such internationally renowned conductors as Pierre Monteux, Willem Mengelberg, Eduard van Beinum, Sir Adrian Boult and George Szell.

In 1922, she began teaching the piano at the Toonkunst Music School in Amsterdam.

On March 12, 1952, she performs for the last time with orchestra, and on April 30 gives her last recital with Noémie Perugia. After the recital, she collapses and a month later she dies in the hospital.

Compositions
Henriëtte Bosmans is considered one of the most important Dutch composers of the first half of the 20th century. As a pianist and composer, she was affiliated with various chamber music ensembles in Amsterdam, with among others the violinists Louis Zimmerman and Francis Koene and the cellist Marix Loevensohn.

Her first compositions, including her first orchestral piece ‘Poème‘ (1923), for cello and orchestra, are written in a German-Romantic style.

World War II puts her career on hold. Henriëtte Bosmans refuses to become a member of the Nazi’s Chamber of Culture and can perform only secretly. During the war, she develops a friendship with the reciter Charlotte Köhler. After a lengthy period in which Bosmans regularly performs but does not compose, because of the premature death of Francis Koene in 1935 and the war, she writes the ‘Doodenmarsch‘ [Death March, 1945], on text by Clara Eggink. Marius Flothuis regards this as one of her best works.

At the repeated request of Benjamin Britten, Henriëtte Bosmans sets Olive Schreiner’s poem ‘Dreams‘ to music and dedicates it to Peter Pears, Britten’s partner. That same year (1948), she also meets the singer Noémie Perugia. In the last years of her life, while she is tormented by illness, comes a new creative period. The songs she writes, and performs with her friend Perugia, are among the best of that period.

Awards
Bosmans entered her ‘Concertstuk‘ for flute and chamber orchestra (1929) in a Concertgebouw Orchestra competition and was awarded second prize. Also, she was made a Knight in the Order of Orange-Nassau in 1951.

The Henriëtte Bosmansprijs is created in 1994. It is an encouragement prize for new compositions which is awarded during the Netherlands Music Days by GeNeCo, consisting of €2500 (US$3500) and a performance. Since 2003, the prize is presented after a composition competition.

Kees van Baaren

General
Kees Cornelius Leendert van Baaren was born on October 22, 1906 in Enschede. He died in Oegstgeest on September 2, 1970. Being the son of a music dealer, Van Baaren played the piano, cello and harmonica already in his early years.

Education
His early studies (1924–29) were in Berlin with Rudolph Breithaupt (piano) and Friedrich Koch (composition) at the Stern conservatory. In these days, Kees van Baaren played jazz and accompanied the Kabarett der Unmöglichen [Cabaret of the Impossible] to support himself. After returning to the Netherlands in 1929, he studied with Willem Pijper.

Career
His great inspiration during his studies was the jazz pianist Fats Waller. The pianist – and Van Baaren student – Misha Mengelberg said: “Van Baaren played Waller’s music pretty well himself, with much more interesting chords than Waller used, but without a trace of swing.”

In 1948 Van Baaren became director of the Conservatoire of the Amsterdam Muzieklyceum Society (later merged into the Conservatoire of Amsterdam). In 1953 he was appointed director of the Utrecht Conservatoire. In 1958 he became director of the Royal Conservatory of The Hague.

As a teacher and composer, he stimulated Dutch musical life and the generation of composers who were his students, among whom were Louis Andriessen, Theo Bruins, Reinbert de Leeuw, Misha Mengelberg, David Porcelijn, Peter Schat, Jan van Vlijmen, Jan Wisse and, surprisingly, Harry Bannink.

Compositions
Van Baaren composed mainly orchestral and chamber music. One of his first compositions was ‘’ (1933); he destroyed all previous works. From 1934 onward, he often used the same germ cell technique of William Piper and dodecaphonic method of Arnold Schoenberg together. He himself says: “For me there is no difference between the germ and the series.” When he told Piper, he said: “You’re absolutely right, but I can not keep an eye on twelve at the same time.” Kees van Baaren was the first important Dutch composer to use twelve-tone technique.

While composing some works in an accessible, tonal style, in other pieces he developed toward a serial technique, which emerged fully with the ‘Septet’ for five winds, violin, and double bass (1952) (Ryker 2001). Based on this work, Van Baaren is praised as “the, technically speaking, most modern composer of the Netherlands”. That this music “at first hearing, sounded more to Piper than Schoenberg says a lot about the influence of his teacher” (Elmer Schönberger: Serial Expressionism in the Netherlands, pro and con). Later in the 50s, he repeats this dodecaphonic writing in a.o. ’Musical Self Portrait’ and ‘Sinfonia’ (1957) for orchestra.

With his work ‘Variazoni per Orchestra’ he establishes his name as serialistisch composer. “Due to this work and later compositions Van Baaren is seen as the father of the Dutch serialism.” (Leo Samama, 2006)

Musica per Orchestra’ (1966) is the last piece for large ensemble and ‘Musica per Campane‘ – the second version – is his last completed work; a violin concerto for soloist Theo Olof remains unfinished.

Awards
Baaren received the Sweelinck Prize for his entire oeuvre in 1969.

Jurriaan Andriessen

General
Jurriaan Hendrik Andriessen (15 November 1925, Haarlem – 19 August 1996, The Hague) was a Dutch composer, whose father, Hendrik, brother Louis, and uncle Willem have also been notable composers.

Education
Andriessen studied composition with his father Hendrik Andriessen and conducting with Willem van Otterloo at the Utrecht Conservatory, before moving to Paris where he studied with Olivier Messiaen.

Career
In the early fifties, Jurriaan performed as a jazzpianist, named “Leslie Cool”. He started working as a musical consultant and composer at the “Haagse Comedie” in 1957. Besides his work as a composer Andriessen also worked as a conductor, often from his own work, and he directed a.o. concert performances and ballets for television.

Compositions
Jurriaan had a variety of musical influences which he drew upon, including American film music, Aaron Copland’s ballets, folk music of various cultures, neoclassicism, and serialism; this eclecticism combined with his compositional skill made his writing well-suited to scoring dramatic works. His first stage composition was incidental music for “The Miraculous Hour”, a play premiered at the celebration of the 50th year of Queen Wilhelmina’s reign, in 1948. In 1954 the Haagse Comedie (now the Nationaal Toneel, or “National Theatre”) appointed him resident composer, where he wrote scores for Eugene O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra and Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead, among numerous others.

His stay in the United States on a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship from 1949 to 1951 was a fruitful one for his orchestral writing, another notable area of his work; during this time he composed the Tanglewood Overture for Serge Koussevitsky, and the Berkshire Symphonies, later used as ballet music by George Balanchine. His compositions were commissioned for state celebrations, including the wedding and the coronation of Queen Beatrix and the silver jubilee of Queen Juliana.

In addition to the theatre works he is most noted for, Andriessen was also a prolific composer of chamber and vocal works, many of which were meant to be performed by amateurs; he has also been a director for television.
In his book “Nederlandse Muziek in de Twintigste Eeuw” [Dutch Music in the Twentieth Century], the musicologist Leo Samama evaluates Andriessen’s music as follows: “Most of the works of Juriaan Andriessen consist of music ‘à la manière de’ […] He was in fact able to playfully re-create any style and any technique […] As a composer of music for film, radio and television plays, and many other forms of occasional music, that is of course very useful.”

Awards
Jurriaan Andriessen was awarded the first Johan Wagenaar Prize with his work ‘The Miraculous Hour’. On commission by the city council of The Hague, Jurriaan composed the symphonic rhapsody ‘Thai’ on the occasion of the state visit of the King of Thailand in 1960, and was appointed Knight of the Order of the White Elephant. In 1972, Andriessen was appointed Knight in the Order of Orange-Nassau For his achievements in the field of theater music.

Hendrik Andriessen

General
Hendrik Andriessen was born on September 17, 1892 in Haarlem (Netherlands). The organist Nico Andriessen and painter Gesina Vester were his parents. He was raised in an artistic environment. Of his six children, Juriaan, Caecilia, and Louis also became composers. He died on April 17, 1981 in Haarlem.

Education
After the death of his father in 1913, Hendrik Andriessen is his successor as organist at St. Joseph’s Church. In that same period he starts writing his first compositions. Hendrik studied organ with Jean-Baptiste de Pauw and composition with Bernard Zweers at the Conservatory in Amsterdam.

Career
As an organist and composer, he gave attention to both sacred and secular music. Hendrik also worked as a teacher in music theory and composition at the Conservatory in Amsterdam, and in organ and composition at the Catholic Music School in Utrecht. In 1934, Hendrik started to work as an organist at Utrecht Cathedral and in 1937 as director of the Utrecht Conservatory. During World War 2, he writes a book about César Franck. Despite an official ban on carrying out its work, Andriessen still ranked among the five most played Dutch composers, along with Johan Wagenaar, Henk Badings, Alphons Diepenbrock and Karel Mengelberg. In 1949, Hendrik Andriessen started to work as the director of the Royal Conservatory in The Hague.

A year later, he writes his first book about music, named “Over Muziek” (About music). In his next book “Muziek en Muzikaliteit” (1952), he expresses his opinion that music shouldn’t be related to the biographic history of the maker: “The artwork is a portrait of itself and nothing else.”

Compositions
Andriessen’s musical language further embroiders on that of César Franck (another organist) and Albert Roussel with a variety of modern elements.”Bitonality (the simultaneous use of two different keys) plays a role in various of his later compositions, and themes built from the twelve tones in the octave reveal that Schoenberg’s ideas were not totally lost on him”. (Frits van der Waa in de Volkskrant) Andriessen was not a musical pioneer, but neither did he ignore innovation. His secular music is often described as reserved, but his sacred music is mildly innovative. Andriessen himself said: “I have never done my best for anything, not even for making new church music – though some say that I did some such thing. Well, I’m not so sure of that. I did only what I felt like doing”.

Awards
In 1950, Hendrik Andriessen received the Johan Wagenaar Prize. In 1961, he was awarded the Prof. van der Leeuw Prize and in 1962 the Sweelinck Prize.

One hundred years after his birth, the Hendrik Andriessen Centenary is celebrated throughout the Netherlands. During this Andriessen-year, the Haarlem Concertgebouw insert a chest sculpture of Henry at the age of 19.

Simeon ten Holt

Simeon ten Holt was born in Bergen on January 24, 1923.
He studied piano and theory with Jakob van Domselaer (1890-1960). In 1949 he moved to Paris where he received lessons at the École Normale with Arthur Honegger and Darius Milhaud.
From 1970 to 1987 he taught contemporary music at the Academy of Visual Arts in Arnhem. As a pianist he is active performing his own works.

General
Simeon ten Holt was born in Bergen on January 24, 1923. He passed away on November 25, 2012 in Alkmaar.

Education
Simeon studied piano and theory with Jakob van Domselaer (1890-1960). In 1949 he moved to Paris where he received lessons at the École Normale with Arthur Honegger and Darius Milhaud.

Career
In 1968, Simeon founded the “Werkgroep Bergen Hedendaagse Muziek (Working Group Contemporary Music Bergen)”. For this working group he organized concerts solely devoted to contemporary music, initially at the Arts Centre in Bergen, later at the Ruïnekerk [Ruin Church].

From 1969 to 1975, Ten Holt was an employee of the Institute of Sonology in Utrecht, where he realized some electronic compositions.

From 1970 to 1987, he taught contemporary music at the Academy of Visual Arts in Arnhem. Here he experimented with group improvisations that, in latter years, led to performances at Arnhem Festivals.

As a pianist he was active performing his own works.

The memoirs of Simeon ten Holt, entitled “The forest and the citadel”, were published in 2009 by publisher Balance.

Compositions
“My compositions take shape without any predetermined plan and are, as it were, the reflection of a quest for an unknown goal… As far as I can see, my relationship, both figuratively and practically speaking, to the tonal centre and the problem of tonality, has been a determining factor in the development of the achievements in my creative career. This relation gradually shifted from an initial intuitive understanding to a more conscious issue later on. The role of the tonal centre, first as an undisputed factor, starts to move, loses its authority, submerges into chromaticism and the equality of all tones, and finally emerges in a shape that is chastened by death and katharsis. A large-scale history reproduces itself on a small scale.” (Simeon ten Holt, 1995)

A breakthrough is the performance of ‘…A/.TA-LON‘ by the Asko Ensemble at the 1978 Holland Festival.

In 1979, his composition ‘Canto ostinato‘ (1976-1979) for four keyboards is premiered. Ten Holt (1995): “I was very surprised to find myself in a steppe-like landscape one day, which was characterized by an immense horizon, by vastness, space and time, and, last but not least: by tonal centres and tonality (‘Canto ostinato‘).” In 1984, Simeon released a LP with ‘Canto Ostinato‘ and later also a CD. It has been the best selling album of all Dutch composers.

Other important works are: ‘Bagatellen‘ (1954), ‘Cyclus aan de waanzin‘ (1961), ‘Interpolations‘ (1969), ‘Natalon in E‘ (1979) for piano; ‘Diagonaalmuziek‘ for strings (1958), ‘Tripticon‘ for percussion ensemble (1965), Music for the film ‘Kockyn‘ (1966); ‘Lemniscaat‘ (1983) and ‘Horizon‘ (1985) for keyboard instruments, ‘Soloduiveldans I‘ (1959), ‘Soloduiveldans II‘ (1986) and ‘Soloduiveldans III‘ (1990) for piano and ‘Incantatie IV‘ (1990) for 5 instruments.

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Bernard van Beurden

Bernard van Beurden was born in Amsterdam on the 5th of December, 1933. He started playing the violin when he was 8 years old and at the age of 11 he wrote his first composition for violin and cello.
After secondary school he first studied violin and viola at the Amsterdam Conservatorium. He continued to study composition with Rudolf Escher and Ton de Leeuw.

General
Bernard van Beurden was born in Amsterdam on the 5th of December, 1933. He started playing the violin when he was 8 years old and at the age of 11 he wrote his first composition for violin and cello.

Education
After secondary school he first studied violin and viola at the Amsterdam Conservatorium. He then went on to study composition with Rudolf Escher and Ton de Leeuw.

Career
As a teacher van Beurden has worked in Amsterdam at the School of Music, the School for Theatre, the School for Drama and the Rotterdam Conservatorium. In addition to teaching aspiring professionals, he has also been involved with amateur musicians and ensembles as composer/educator.

Van Beurden has given countless workshops around the world in countries which include the Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Germany, Poland, France, Portugal and the United States. In 1974 he wrote a book about practising contemporary music to be used for these workshops and in schools: “WERKBOEK VOOR MUZIEK VAN NU”, which has been translated into Swedish.

Compositions
His compositions cover a wide variety of areas including:
* Chamber music for various instruments and ensembles;
* Choir music, a capella or with instrumental accompaniment;
* Compositions for wind orchestra, fanfare orchestra (brass instruments and wind ensembles), mainly solo concertos for wind players, string players, vocalists or combinations of these;
* Compositions for mandolin orchestra, sometimes in combination with instruments such as accordion, bassoon or soprano;
* Compositions for symphony orchestra, string orchestra, ballet and theatre.
Especially this last category plays an important part in van Beurden’s oeuvre. He has composed music for 21 plays as well as 7 works for music theatre, of which 4 were written for children. One of these Rumpelstiltskin from Lavenlots has been translated into German and Croatian. He has also composed music for 3 operas, of which ‘Esperanza’ was translated into Swedish.

He has written a number of compositions inspired by and based on political issues: for example ‘I am Ericka‘, ‘Soweto‘, ‘Grenzeloos‘, ‘Esperanza’, ‘Out of Europe’ and ‘Poems of Guantànamo‘.

His music is frequently performed in the Netherlands as well as in other European countries, Japan, China and the United States. Apart from in the Netherlands, his music is published in Germany, France and the United States.

Most of Bernard van Beurden’s works are written on commission, and the majority of his music has been composed with the financial support of the Foundation for the Performing Arts.

His recent works are written on commission by the Galakoor Amsterdam (‘Via Dolorosa‘, 2015), Voca Me (‘Luister naar mijn stem‘, 2014), the Nederlands Jeugd Strijkorkest (‘Memories‘, 2013), and The Royal Symphonic Band of the Belgian Guides (‘ANDERS’, 2013).

Awards
Van Beurden spent 7 years working as a programme maker and composer for Dutch radio, and in 1978 he won the RAI-prize of the Prix Italia for his Radiophonic Oratorio ‘Bajesmaf (Jail-crazy)’.

Bernard van Beurden was awarded the Royal decoration of “Officer in the Order of Oranje Nassau” on the 7th of December, 2003 for his exceptional services as a musician.

Luc Brewaeys

Luc Brewaeys was born in 1959 in Mortsel (Belgium). He studied composition with André LAPORTE in Brussels, with Franco DONATONI in Siena (Italy) and with Brian FERNEYHOUGH in Darmstadt (Germany). From 1980 to 84 he had regular contacts with Iannis XENAKIS in Paris. He is also conductor, pianist and works since 1985 as recording producer at the VRT (Flemish Radio & Television).

General
Luc Brewaeys was born on August 25, in 1959 in Mortsel (Belgium) and passed away on December 18, in 2015.

Education
He studied composition with André Laporte in Brussels (Belgium), with Franco Donatoni in Siena (Italy) and with Brian Ferneyhough in Darmstadt (Germany).

Career
From 1998 to 2000, Luc Brewaeys was professor of composition at the Conservatory in Gent. He was also a conductor and pianist, and had been working as a recording producer at the VRT since 1985.

Compositions
Luc Brewaeys received many commissions in Belgium and abroad. His works include among others 8 Symphonies, 2 String Quartets, Chamber and Solo pieces, some electro-acoustic (& mixed) works and one Chamber Opera ‘Antigone’. Luc’s music can best be described as “spectral symphonic” with (especially in more recent works) lyrical accents.

From 2002 to 2005 he recomposed the complete two books of the ‘Préludes’ for piano by Claude Debussy on commission of the Royal Flanders Philharmonic.

His most recent works include ‘Eppur si muove’ for ensemble (2014), ‘Ni fleurs ni couronnes: Monument pour Jonathan Harvey’ for violin with ghost-violins and -bells (2013) and ‘Fêtes à tensions: (les) eaux marchent’ for 20 players’ (2012).

Awards
Luc Brewaeys was awarded several prizes and distinctions. For example, he was awarded the First Prize in the category of young composers of the International Rostrum of Composers of the UNESCO for ‘.., e poi c’era…‘ Symphony n° 1 in 1986. Ten years later, the Belgian Musical Press awarded him two Prizes for the recording of his (up to then) entire symphonic work by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra of Flanders, conducted by Arturo Tamayo, who conducted most of his music. For his entire work, he received the “Prix de Musique Contemporaine du Québec” in 1988 and the Cultural Prize “Blanlin-Evrart” from the Catholic University of Leuven in 1999.

Luc was composer in residence of the International Cultural Center deSingel for the ’88-’89 concert season and of the “Dicht bij huis” in Tilburg (The Netherlands) in 2001. From 1991 to ’92, he was composer in residence of the city of Saint-Nazaire (France) and for the season 2003-04 at the BOZAR in Brussels. In February-March 2009, he was in residence in Montréal, where he gave Masterclasses at the McGill University, at the Université de Montréal and at the Conservatoire.

Brewaeys was also one of the main featured composers at the Ars Musica Festival in 2004 and central composer of the “November Music” in 2007. In February 2007, his first opera (‘L’uomo dal fiore in bocca’), commissioned by the Belgian National Opera “La Monnaie”, got its widely acclaimed premiere in Brussels. Besides, he was invited by the Cantus Ansambl in Zagreb for workshops and a performance of ‘Cardhu‘ as part of the Re:new music project in 2009. In December 2008, Luc Brewaeys had been elected as member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts, and in October 2009 as appointed guest professor of composition at the Conservatory of Rotterdam (The Netherlands).

Hans Kox

Hans Kox was born in Arnhem on May 19, 1930. Hans Kox, whose father was a choral conductor and organist, studied piano with Jaap Spaanderman from 1948 to 1951 and composition with Henk Badings from 1951 to 1955 in Amsterdam.

Hans Kox was born in Arnhem on May 19, 1930. He died on February 25, 2019 at Haarlem.

Education Kox, whose father was a choral conductor and organist, studied at the Utrecht Conservatory from 1946 to 1948. After two years, he switched to the Amsterdam Conservatory, where he studied piano with Jaap Spaanderman from 1948 to 1951 and composition with Henk Badings from 1951 to 1955.

Career From 1957 to 1970, Kox was director of the music school in Doetinchem, from 1970 to 1974, musical adviser of the North Holland Philharmonic Orchestra (Haarlem), and from 1974 to 1984, he taught composition at the Conservatory of Music in Utrecht. While still a composition student, he made his debut at the Gaudeamus Music Week with both a string trio and a piano sonata. On the occasion of his 75th birthday, a biography by Bas van Putten, ‘Hoog Spel’, was published in 2005.

Compositions From 1984, Kox devoted himself entirely to composing. To that end, he secluded himself, for “Composing is simply the loneliest profession on earth. I knew that when I got started, and actually, I wouldn’t have it any other way.” In more than 50 years, Kox completed about 150 compositions. His music has no specific intentions or meaning. Kox describes his music as “just music, sound. Music is itself, however one wants to interpret this.” Kox received numerous commissions from the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Buma Cultural Fund, and the Dutch government, among others. Additionally, he has received commissions from many countries such as Germany, Belgium, Venezuela and the United States. For the Scheveningen International Music Competition 1987, Kox wrote the compulsory work ‘Le Songe du Vergier‘ for violoncello and orchestra. In commemoration of the Dutch Liberation’s 40th anniversary Kox composed the ‘Anne Frank Cantata: a Child of Light‘, which was premiered on May 4th, 1985. This piece is a part of the ‘War Trilogy‘ together with ‘In those Days‘ (1969) and ‘Requiem for Europe‘ (1971). The oratorio ‘Sjoah‘, for soloists, choir and orchestra, was written in 1989. Kox also wrote the opera’s ‘Dorian Gray‘ and ‘Das grüne Gesicht‘, the cantata ‘Credo quia absurdum‘, six symphonies and violin concertos. In March 2003, the opera ‘Rochester’s second bottle‘ was performed in Birmingham. The ‘4th Violin Concerto‘ was written for the British violinist Daniel Hope and the Rotterdam Chamber orchestra, premiered in May 2005. His most recente works include ‘Sonate nº. 2‘ for violoncello solo (2011), ‘Symphony Nº 6‘ for mixed choir and orchestra (2012), ‘Stray Birds ‘ for trumpet/organ duet (2015) and ‘String Quartet Nº 3‘ (2015).

Discography Two of his most recent CD’s include: Die Todesfrau (2015) with the compositions ‘Die Todesfrau‘ (2005), ‘Lalage’s Monologues‘ (2011) and ‘Gedächtnislieder‘ (1972). Included in this issue is a DVD, “A portrait of Hans Kox”. Dorian Gray (2012), an opera in two acts, performed by Radio Kamerorkest.

Awards Hans Kox was awarded various prizes: at the Haarlem International Organ Competition in 1954, the Cultural Prize of the City of Arnhem, and the Music Prize of the City of Amsterdam in 1956 for ‘Preludium and Fugue‘, at the Visser-Neerlandia Prize in 1959 for ‘Symfonie no. 1‘, at the Prix Italia in 1970 for ‘In Those Days‘, and at the First Prize of the Rostrum of Composers in 1974 for ‘L’Allegria‘. On November 28, 2010, Kox received the Penning van Verdienste (Medal of Merit) of the city Haarlem.